Data Science Guide To Machine Learning: Types of Machine Learning

Data Science Guide To Machine Learning: Types of Machine Learning


Machine Learning is the process of using computers to learn from data. It’s a type of artificial intelligence that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed. That’s why people like Erik Brynjolfsson, director of the MIT Initiative on the Digital Economy, have said that “machine learning is so central to everything we’re trying to do”.

In this guide we’ll cover some common machine learning algorithms and give you an idea of how they work. We’ll also cover how they can be used in real world applications such as image classification, natural language processing (NLP), and text analysis.

Supervised Learning

In supervised learning, you use a training set to learn. Then, you can use your model to make predictions about new data.

  • A training set is a collection of examples that are labeled with their respective categories. For example, if we wanted to build a classifier for dogs and cats–a common task in machine learning–our training set would have pictures of both animals labeled as “dog” or “cat.”
  • We need some way of finding the best possible model given our training data (i.e., what kind of function should we use?). This process is called fitting or optimization and one popular approach is gradient descent: starting with an initial guess at what our model should look like (called hyperparameters), we iteratively adjust its parameters until it fits our data well enough

Unsupervised Learning

Unsupervised learning is a machine learning task that does not require labeled data. In other words, you don’t have to provide the algorithm with any labels or answers for it to work properly. Unsupervised learning can be used for image recognition, natural language processing and other tasks.

In this section we’ll explore two types of unsupervised learning: clustering and association rules mining (also known as market basket analysis).

Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement learning is a type of machine learning that uses trial and error to learn what actions will lead to the best outcome. The machine learns by trying different actions, receiving feedback on whether they were successful or not, then using this information to make better decisions in the future.

The key difference between reinforcement learning and other types of machine learning is that rewards are given for good outcomes instead of punishment being given for bad outcomes. For example: if you’re playing a game where there’s an enemy at the end who shoots at you every time he sees you (and misses), then each time he does this it’s considered a reward because you didn’t die! As another example: let’s say we have a robot who has been tasked with picking up objects from one place and placing them somewhere else on an assembly line – but sometimes these objects can be heavy so it might take awhile before our robot finishes moving them all over again depending on how many times it needs help carrying something heavy off-site… This would be considered punishment since our robot doesn’t want anything heavy weighing down its arms while working hard trying get everything done quickly.”

Semi-Supervised Learning

When you’re using semi-supervised learning, the algorithm is trained with both labeled and unlabeled data.

This means that the algorithm can learn from both types of data without having to rely on supervised training alone. This makes it possible for an ML model to be able to make decisions based on what it has learned from its training set, as well as what it has seen before in the wild (unlabeled).

Dimensionality Reduction

When you have a lot of data, it’s easy to get overwhelmed by all the different features. You may want to find out what the most important ones are, but this can be hard if there are too many variables. This is where dimensionality reduction comes in: a technique that reduces the number of features used for modeling by finding a lower-dimensional representation of them.

Dimensionality reduction algorithms have been around since the 1960s, when they were first used in pattern recognition applications such as face detection and image classification. They’re still used today because they’re good at finding simple representations of complex data sets without losing too much information along the way–that is, they preserve most aspects of original datasets while downsizing them into more manageable sizes (which makes them easier for computers).

Transfer Learning

One of the most exciting types of machine learning is transfer learning. It’s a type of machine learning in which a model is trained on one set of data and then used to make predictions on another set of data. For example, you could train an image recognition algorithm on pictures of dogs and then use it to identify cats–even though cats were never part of its original training set!

Transfer learning can be used for many different purposes: predictive maintenance (where you use historical information about equipment failure rates), fraud detection (using machine vision technology), or even medical diagnostics (by combining multiple datasets).

Machine Learning is a type of Artificial Intelligence that can make predictions about the world.

Machine Learning is a type of Artificial Intelligence that can make predictions about the world.

The term “machine learning” was coined in 1959 by Arthur Samuel, who defined it as “a field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed.” Machine Learning is used to make predictions about the world–for example, you can use Machine Learning to predict whether someone will buy your product or not.


Machine Learning is a type of Artificial Intelligence that can make predictions about the world. It’s important to understand the different types of Machine Learning so that you know how to apply them in your own work.

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